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    监制:LEE Tze Leung

    04/08/2020
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    In the late 1950’s, a number of businesses and industrialists transferred their capital and technologies from the thriving industrial cities, such as Shanghai, to Hong Kong owing to the political turmoil in Mainland China, bringing about the economic transformation and boom in Hong Kong. Back then, Central Textiles Limited, South China Textiles Limited and Nan Fung Textiles Limited had large textile factories in Hong Kong. With capital and talents from the Mainland, as well as numerous competitive workers willing to work overtime, these factories gradually developed into multinational corporations, leading to decades of prosperity and various economic miracles in Hong Kong.

    However, these factories are all closed down today. Hong Kong is shaped into a city providing services in different aspects such as finance, logistics, tourism and information, but is this the best pathway for the city? What will be the future of Hong Kong’s economic development?


    联络: leetl@rthk.hk


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    EPISODES
    • Golden Era of Literature

      Golden Era of Literature

      From the 1950’s to 1970’s, Hong Kong literature entered a golden age of great glory.

      In 1949, with the founding of New China, many literati and writers came south to Hong Kong, forming a platform for expression of public opinions by the leftists and the rightists, and showcasing the blossoming local literary community.

      In the early 1950’s, “Chinese Student Weekly”, an important publication for young people, appeared in the history of Hong Kong literature, and it had a profound impact on the young people at that time. “New Wave Art and Culture” advocated modernist literature and believed that literature should not be influenced by politics. In the mid 1950’s, there was a number of “Hong Kong Pulp Fictions” published in Hong Kong, and people also said that it was a “Fiction Era” at that time.

      In the 1950’s and 1960’s, the newspaper industry in Hong Kong was booming, and many literati published their work and commentaries in the columns of newspaper supplement. Mainland literati LIU Yi-chang and CAO Juren were among the leaders and their lives of “selling their literatures” were also recorded in their work.

      In the early 1970’s, the local consciousness of Hong Kong literature began to rise. Many writers used with Hong Kong as the theme of their work, making the Hong Kong literary world in the 1970’s full of local flavour.

      15/09/2020
    • Demographic Changes in Hong Kong

      Demographic Changes in Hong Kong

      After the end of the Sino-Japanese War, there was the outbreak of the Chinese Civil War. Flocks of Kuomintang soldiers stayed in Hong Kong. They first resided temporarily in Mount Davis and then moved to Tiu Keng Leng. After a generation of people, a new generation has assimilated into the city and become Hong Kong people.

      During 1950’s to 1960’s, also known as the period shortly after the founding of New China, large numbers of Mainland people migrated to Hong Kong due to different reasons. Some of them came by land and some by sea. Encountering different difficulties, the majority of them successfully arrived in Hong Kong. With perseverance, they stayed in Hong Kong to make a living, and laid a stable foundation for the city’s economic development in future.

      Among these Mainland Chinese people who took refuge in Hong Kong, a lot of them joined the clansmen associations of their own provinces and municipalities. These associations, which were with Mainland culture, witnessed the inseparable relation between the experience of different generations of Hong Kong people and the development of the Mainland. With the end of an era, functions of the clansmen associations altered, while the term “旅港” (sojourn) has gradually disappeared on their signboards, and local features have also been added to the work of these associations bit by bit.

      08/09/2020
    • Light and Shadow in the Post-war Years

      Light and Shadow in the Post-war Years

      Film production is an integrated art form that brings out messages through visual and aural elements. Films create a virtual world with light and sound, providing entertainment as well as a reflection of the reality that viewers can relate to. They do exert some extent of influence on the community.

      Dating back to a long time ago, Hong Kong’s film industry has flourished over time. Despite being a small place, Hong Kong is the birthplace of numerous films of various genres. Hong Kong films even started to gain international recognition in the 1980’s.

      This episode will start with the period after the Second World War, and look at history through films during the Cold War. We will explore the characteristics of Hong Kong films in the 1950’s and 1960’s, as well as how they illustrate the everyday life and mindset of people, the circumstances and atmosphere of society of the time. We will also attempt to find out how Hong Kong films have grown to be so unique with the city’s unparalleled social system, geographical location, East-meets-West background, and the dual pressure originating from the market and political environment.

      01/09/2020
    • In the Tides of Labour Disturbances

      In the Tides of Labour Disturbances

      After the Second World War, although the Hong Kong Government adopted a series of measures to stabilise prices, the increase in wages failed to catch up with the increase in prices, leading to numerous labour disturbances in the post-war period. In 1947 alone, there were more than 50 cases of trade disputes.

      Professor HO Pui-yin, the Vice Chair of the Department of History of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, states that trade disputes in the early post-war period were mostly economic disputes. The British Hong Kong Government was worried that its governance would be affected by the increasingly stronger trade unions, thus it implemented the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance (“the Ordinance”) in April 1948. The Ordinance stipulated that all trade unions must register with the Registrar of Trade Unions, which was doubled by the Commissioner for Labour back then, to be officially recognised as legitimate trade unions in Hong Kong, in order to aid monitoring the operation of trade unions. In addition, as the Ordinance prohibited establishment of general unions, the leftist Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions and the rightist Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council could only be registered as societies.

      The subsequent political development in China led to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. In the 1950’s, marked political differences emerged between trade unions in Hong Kong. Trade unions were no longer only fighting for labour welfare, but also promulgating their political beliefs.

      In 1950, after the “Russell Street Incident” happened during the tram worker go-slow, the British Hong Kong Government invoked the Expulsion of Undesirables Ordinance to deport some trade union leaders which was a heavy strike on the operation of leftist trade unions. The “March First Incident” in 1952 clearly reflected that the British Hong Kong Government would like to avoid trade unions from intervening in the livelihood issues in Hong Kong. According to ZHOU Yi, author of “A History of Labour Movement in Hong Kong”, the leftist labour movement was “toned down” after the “March First Incident” and its direction of development was changed from fierce class conflict to welfare development.

      The “Double Tenth Riots” in 1956 and the “1967 Riots” were severe blows to the leftist and rightist trade unions respectively. The “1967 Riots” was also an important turning point in Hong Kong’s labour movement, bringing about the enactment of the first Employment Ordinance in Hong Kong. Labours began to be alert to trade unions with political attitudes, giving rise to independent trade unions which claimed to prioritise securing employee welfare and have no political background. Furthermore, labours bypassed trade unions and organised industrial actions themselves, and dared striving for their rights. Since then, the development of labour movement in Hong Kong entered another new stage.

      Producer: PANG Chi-man

      25/08/2020
    • Education for All

      Education for All

      Education in Hong Kong went through the transition from elite education to universal education for a few decades during the post-war period.

      With the massive inflow of population from Mainland China, the Government progressively implemented an expansion programme on primary and secondary schools from the 1950’s to cope with the surging population. However, the number of government and grant schools subsidised by the Government was far behind to catch up with the rate of population growth. A large number of private schools played an exceptionally important role during that period to cope with the pressing issue of severe shortage of school places. Subsequently, the six-year free primary education policy and three-year free junior secondary education policy were implemented in the early 1970’s and late 1970’s respectively. The blueprint for basic education in Hong Kong was established back then.

      Blend of east and west and diversity have always been the characteristics of Hong Kong. Thus school sponsoring bodies with different religious or political beliefs co-exist, while traditional leftist or patriotic schools have become a unique component in the education system of Hong Kong.

      18/08/2020
    • The Newspaper Industry in Hong Kong

      The Newspaper Industry in Hong Kong

      The Chinese press in Hong Kong sprang up like mushrooms after the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression. Since 1949, various powers have been operating newspapers in Hong Kong, giving rise to propaganda warfare. While the traditional major newspapers continued to thrive, some characteristic tabloids also emerged as important leisure reading materials for the public. In addition, afternoon and evening newspapers became part of the everyday lives of people. It is common to see people reading different kinds of newspapers and periodicals after a meal and on the ferry.

      Furthermore, fledgling newspapers such as Sing Pao Daily News became increasingly market-oriented, largely covering the topics people are fond of. It even surpassed the traditional major newspapers later in terms of sales volume and grew to be the most popular newspaper. Ming Pao Daily News, founded by Louis CHA, also attracted a group of intellectual middle-class readers after some hard work, and claimed a spot among mainstream newspapers.

      The 1970’s represented a new era for the newspaper industry of Hong Kong as the idea of intellectuals running newspapers had been progressively replaced by commercialised operating models. This also led to another peak in the industry’s development.

      11/08/2020
    • Tracking the Vanished Hong Kong Industries

      Tracking the Vanished Hong Kong Industries

      In the late 1950’s, a number of businesses and industrialists transferred their capital and technologies from the thriving industrial cities, such as Shanghai, to Hong Kong owing to the political turmoil in Mainland China, bringing about the economic transformation and boom in Hong Kong. Back then, Central Textiles Limited, South China Textiles Limited and Nan Fung Textiles Limited had large textile factories in Hong Kong. With capital and talents from the Mainland, as well as numerous competitive workers willing to work overtime, these factories gradually developed into multinational corporations, leading to decades of prosperity and various economic miracles in Hong Kong.

      However, these factories are all closed down today. Hong Kong is shaped into a city providing services in different aspects such as finance, logistics, tourism and information, but is this the best pathway for the city? What will be the future of Hong Kong’s economic development?

      04/08/2020